Late Middle English (as a noun in the sense ‘meaning’): from Latin sensus ‘faculty of feeling, thought, meaning’, from sentire ‘feel’—the source also of assent, consent, resent, scent, sentence, sentient, sentiment, etc. The verb dates from the mid-16th century.
Late Middle English (in the sense ‘having the ability to reason’): from Latin rationalis, from ratio(n-) ‘reckoning, reason’, from rat– ‘reckoned’, from the verb reri—the source also of ratio, rate, reason, etc.
Middle English: from Old French juge (noun), juger (verb), from Latin judex, judic-, from jus ‘law’ (the source also of just (Late Middle English), justice (Old English), injury (Late Middle English), etc.) + dicere ‘to say’